Early summers usually bring a pleasant relief from the bone chilling winters, but come April & May, the summer heat starts taking its toll, both physically as well as mentally. And when it’s a tropical climate, as in most parts of India, the hot days can be all together stressful. The energy levels of individuals go down and so does their productivity.

This is when the modern day Air conditioning comes as a God Gift. A very large no. of Offices, laboratories, hotels, public buildings are nowadays fitted with air conditioning systems. Centralized Air Conditioning Systems ensure cooling in every nook and corner of the working space.

While this all sound hunky dory, its not. Extensive air conditioning is synonymous to heavy power consumption (and wastage) leading to not just heavy electricity bills but also the dreaded frequent power outages. The next step is – of course – DG sets, to bring the desired comfort indoors, while puffing out clouds of black smoke with terribly high levels of sound pollution for the outside world and the environment to endure.

In the midst of saving ourselves from the fury of the nature, we are inadvertently attacking the nature more and more, which keeps returning even more furiously every now and then. One of the biggest points of concern thus is the impending danger due to the rising world temperatures (Global warming!!). So what shall we do to survive and survive with comfort?

Let’s not forget we have an immense source of energy in the very Sun that we’re shielding ourselves from. One answer is Generation of power using sun’s energy. It’s free and for now we can safely assume, unlimited. Yes, solar energy can light up our homes and cook our food. But can it also cool our houses? The answer again is yes. Solar air conditioning, a revolutionary and upcoming technology, provides the answer.

Solar air conditioningrefers to any air conditioning (cooling) system that uses solar power. A liquid or a gaseous substance either accumulates on the surface of a solid, porous substance (adsorption) or is taken up by a liquid or a solid substance (absorption for providing the necessary cooling). In some processes supply air is directly conditioned, i.e. treated in terms of temperature and humidity

This thermally driven cooling and air-conditioning process is at the heart of every solar cooling system. The main principle of Sorption Assisted Air Conditioning is shown in the graphic here. The solar energy is used to dehumidify the sorbent.

This is a 9 stage process. In Stage 1 to 2, Sorptive dehumidification of outside air takes place with simultaneous rise in temperature through the freed adsorption heat. Then the air is cooled in the heat reclamation rotor in the countercurrent to the exhaust air (stage 2 to 3). Air is further cooled (Stage 3 to 4) through evaporation-humidification; Thus the air inflow to the building has a lower temperature and less water vapor than the outside air. In Stage 4 to 5 Heating of the air takes place, and if necessary addition of water vapor. Then during Stage to 6 building’s exhaust air temperature is lowered through evaporative cooling in the humidifier. This exhaust air is heated (Stage 6 to 7) in the countercurrent to the air inflow in the heat reclamation rotor. The exhaust air is further heated (Stage 7 to 8) through external heat sources (i.e. solar thermal system). Finally in Stage 8 to 9 Sorption Rotor is Regenerated through the desorption of the bound water.

Open and Closed cycle Air Conditioning Systems:

Open-cycle systems are more beneficial in buildings with high humidity loads and high air exchange rates. The installation of ducts for the supply air and the return air, as well as a heat recovery unit is required. In this, the outside air is dehumidified through sorption and is then brought to the desired temperature by heat recovery as well as direct and indirect evaporative cooling. Usually dehumidifying is achieved in a rotor containing the desiccant material silica gel or lithium chloride, but increasingly liquid desiccants (desiccant material: lithium chloride) are being tried. In these systems the solar heat is required for the regeneration of the absorption/adsorption unit.

Closed-cycle desiccant evaporative cooling systems are based on the processes of Adsorption (based on solid desiccants like silica gel or Zeolites with water as refrigerant) or Absorption (where desiccants are liquid ex. material pairs of lithium bromide as desiccant and water as refrigerant, or water as desiccant and ammonia as refrigerant, where sub Zero temperatures may be required).

For cooling and acclimatizing of buildings, only solar-thermally driven processes are used.

In actual practice, solar collectors are used to convert solar radiation to heat that is then fed into a thermally driven cooling process or into a direct air-conditioning process. Particularly in special applications, for example for cooling medicines in remote areas that are not connected to the grid, a photovoltaic generator transforms solar radiation to solar power that then drives a refrigeration process – usually in the form of a compression chiller.

There have been considerable developments in the field of solar-assisted heating and cooling and world over this technology is being rapidly tried and adopted.

Recently Solar thermal World Magazine reported that India’s latest and probably largest solar thermal based air-conditioning system went operational at Muni Seva Ashram (MSA) in Goraj, situated in the Vadodara district of Gujarat state in western India. A total of 100 parabolic dishes (Scheffler type) by the Indian company Gadhia Solar Energy Systems (GSES) – each 12.5 m2 in size – now supply the already existing 100-ton air-conditioning system of the 160-bed hospital at Muni Seva Ashram. [i]

Performance of Solar Air Conditioning

While designing a SAC system and for judging its performance the key points to observe are the Load Profile, Outside temperatures & humidity.

The decision whether solar cooling is sensible at all is influenced strongly by the load profile. Solar irradiation and cooling demand must be correlated, since the use of fossil fuels for the operation of the chiller is disadvantageous from a primary energy point of view and should be avoided.

In order to achieve the highest possible degree of utilization, applications that also require heat for heating water or for the heating system outside the cooling season must be explored. Thus residential buildings and small office buildings are most suitable. If cooling is required throughout the year (process cold, server rooms) the solar cooling system can be used merely as a fuel-saver for conventional air-conditioning. In such a case free cooling directly through the heat rejection unit might be an option in the cooler seasons.

Heat rejection rate greatly affects the performance and efficiency of the chiller. In most systems the waste heat is released into the environment by dry coolers or wet cooling towers. The former are suitable for moderate climate zones that only occasionally have high outside temperatures (>30°C). Wet cooling towers have the advantage that cooling water temperatures below ambient temperature can be obtained. However, it only works if the relative high humidity allows for evaporative cooling. In regions with a shortage of water it is also unsuitable. In addition, some countries have imposed strict hygiene regulations on wet cooling towers which make the operation of small systems economically unviable.

It is essential to be aware of the fact that boundary conditions other than the nominal conditions, can negatively affect the performance of the cooling machine. If the system is not designed for the nominal operation point, the relevant operating data must be requested from the manufacturer. Then, for example, a dry reverse cycle chiller can also be used in warm climates if the solar thermal system is adapted accordingly.

Utilization of efficient EC motors in the SAC set up helps to reduce the energy consumption. To further reduce electricity consumption, these should be controlled according to operating conditions and cooling demand. Depending on the respective local conditions waste heat can also be rejected of in other ways, e.g. through boreholes, swimming pools or ground water. Ideally the heat can be used in other places.

The Advantages of Solar Air Conditioning

In comparison to conventional, electrically driven compression cooling technology, solar cooling has a no. of advantages. These systems are most useful when the sun shines the strongest – in summers. The machines generally utilize environmentally friendly refrigerants, leading to lower green house gas emissions. In most cases water is utilized which, compared to refrigerants used in compression cooling machines, has no greenhouse potential. Significant power savings can result from the fact that these systems merely require auxiliary energy for the operation of pumps, heat rejection, etc. if the systems are designed correctly. In addition to cooling, the solar collector system can also provide thermal energy for domestic hot water preparation and heating support which leads to a further reduction of emissions. SACs are also ideal for hotels, supermarkets, schools, factories, and large office premises etc. Furthermore, noise emissions are significantly lower since the machines work without compressors.

Most enterprise proprietors in all likelihood already recognise that 20 percentage in their product contains eighty percentage in their sales. Save time in the end via way of means of coming across precisely which services or products are using the enterprise. Focus the bulk of your electricity at the essential matters and reduce lower back at the time you dedicate on the opposite eighty percentage.

Learn to prioritize. Just as 20 percentage of your product drives your enterprise, a number of your sports are greater efficient than others. It is an antique however excellent time control tip to address your maximum essential initiatives first. Teach this approach in your personnel so you will all locate the time to finish the essential initiatives. Once you rank your sports primarily based totally on order of importance, supply your self a hard and fast quantity of time to finish them. For example, supply your self a time restrict to go back telecellsmartphone calls and respond to emails, and strive now no longer to move over it. Sticking to a few type of a agenda will assist you live targeted on essential initiatives as opposed to wander away withinside the mundane sports that don’t clearly power your enterprise ahead.

Make a “to do listing” each day. You might imagine which you do now no longer have the time to write down a listing each morning. However, it is straightforward to turn out to be crushed via way of means of the sheer quantity of chores that face a small enterprise proprietor every day. Last minute interruptions and distractions could make the maximum targeted enterprise proprietor overlook to complete a task. A short however thoughtfully prepared “to do listing” will remind you of what you want to do this day. This will save you you from forgetting to name lower back your essential client. Do now no longer move past the day’s paintings whilst writing the listing, and set affordable dreams. Getting in advance is great, however you may paintings on that once the listing is finished.

There comes a factor in each enterprise whilst the proprietor ought to discover ways to say “no.” Whether you’re handling a needy worker or a hard customer, spreading your self too skinny isn’t excellent to your enterprise. Yes, you want to make clients happy, however from time to time they’ll ask for the close to impossible. Consider whether or not or now no longer doing some thing is right to your enterprise earlier than announcing yes, and discover ways to delegate.

It is tempting for small enterprise proprietors to waste their time micromanaging ever thing in their agency. However, there are duties that don’t require the presence of the proprietor. Teach personnel to do so and make selections in the limitations in their positions. This is extraordinarily hard for the micromanager, however it does offer you with time and electricity to cognizance on different sports which are greater essential, along with bringing in greater clients. Should an worker name you approximately shopping equipment? Yes. Should an worker name you due to the fact a person turned into mins overdue to paintings? Probably now no longer. Creating parameters that outline the quantity of every worker’s decision-making authority will maintain a small enterprise proprietor from having to place out minor fires. Having clean limitations will even increase worker morale. In all honesty, human beings typically hate being micromanaged. You employed your personnel for his or her talent, so why now no longer placed it to excellent use?

Communicate together along with your personnel and be aware about your enterprise’ cut-off dates. Small enterprise proprietors are nonetheless in charge, and that they want to talk with their personnel with a view to make certain that they’re at the equal page. Discuss the cut-off dates with them every week and ensure that they touch you with any new developments. Stay linked in your customers and try and save you any miscommunication on the way to have an effect on initiatives overdue withinside the game.

Be certain to make the effort for your self. This feels counterproductive. Many agency executives and small enterprise proprietors are responsible of perplexing busy with efficient. However, people want time to relaxation and decompress. Numerous research have proven that taking quick breaks absolutely improves ordinary productivity. The mind isn’t stressed to paintings nonstop. People who take breaks make fewer errors and paintings faster. A observe via way of means of Dr. Coker explains that folks that take quick breaks on line are 9 percentage greater efficient than their overly pressured colleagues. So loosen up a minute for the best of the agency.

Stay targeted to your dreams. What do you need out of your enterprise? Set apart a while every month to have a look at your dreams and the way you are becoming there. Look at what techniques are transferring you ahead and discover which of them are dragging you lower back. This may sound easy, however many small enterprise proprietors are so targeted at the everyday sports that they do away with analyzing their dreams regularly. However, consistent assessment can prevent money and time as you find out which techniques paintings for you.

It is tempting to try and store cash via way of means of doing the entirety in house. However, outsourcing is regularly greater fee powerful than doing the entirety your self. For example, the time which you take running as an accountant may be higher spent following up leads and constructing relationships. When 35 percentage of small enterprise proprietors lament now no longer having the time to clearly develop their businesses, it’s miles clean that small enterprise proprietors are taking up too many mundane duties.

Outsourcing specialised initiatives now no longer most effective frees enterprise proprietors to paintings greater effectively, it is able to additionally advantage the agency’s photo and profitability. For example, hiring a picture clothier to create a brochure will in all likelihood yield higher consequences than definitely typing some thing right into a Word document. If you clearly can’t have enough money to outsource a challenge to a expert, appearance within the enterprise. Chances are which you have a multitalented staff. Someone with an hobby in picture layout may to a higher task than you could, and this man or woman simply is probably inclined to paintings a touch inexpensive than a expert would, for the experience.

Staying busy isn’t developing a enterprise. Every enterprise proprietor wishes to assess his or her agenda. Yes, a accountable proprietor is aware of what goes on and could ought to installed pretty some hours. But are the hours being spent withinside the maximum efficient manner? How plenty time do you spend setting out fires and walking in place? Your time is valuable, and also you ought to use it accurately to transport ahead. Some of the time control recommendations defined above may appear counterintuitive or expensive, however take into account the loss your enterprise faces whilst you can’t locate the time to be together along with your clients. A enterprise proprietor is the face of his or her agency. People purchase from proprietors they trust. But, if the proprietor is by no means seen, how can clients get to recognise him or her? Landing a sale will in all likelihood greater than atone for the $10 an hour you pay for an outsourced worker. Learn to apply a while accurately and enlarge your enterprise at the same time as you enhance your first-class of life.